Publications, Reports, & Papers

ACLU 2019 Report on North Carolina Criminal Court Costs and Fees (ACLU, April 2019)

The Debt Spiral: Enforcement of Criminal Justice Debt in North Carolina (Reinvestment Partners, June 2018)

The State of Criminal Justice Reform: 2017 (Vera Institute of Justice, March 2018)

Disrupting the Cycle: Reimagining the Prosecutor’s Role in Reentry (NYU Center on the Administration of Criminal Law, January 2018)

Trends in State Courts (National Center for State Courts, December 2017)

Reforming Criminal Justice (Arizona State University College of Law, November 2017)

Putting Justice in North Carolina’s Juvenile System (Youth Justice Project, Southern Coalition for Social Justice, October 2017)

Rejecting The Wrongs Of Yesterday: A Multifaceted Approach To Eliminating Racial Disparities In The Arkansas Criminal Justice System (Tennessee Journal of Race, Gender, & Social Justice)

Selling Off Our Freedom: How insurance corporations have taken over our bail system (ACLU, May 2017)

Saved From The Executioner. The Unlikely Exoneration Of Henry McCollum (CDPL, September 2017)

Bringing Racial Justice to the Courtroom and Community: Race Matters for Juvenile Justice and the Charlotte Model (Washington and Lee Law Review, March 29, 2017)

Stopped, Fined, Arrested: Racial Bias in Policing and Traffic Courts in California (East Bay Community Law Center, April 2016)

Examining Racial Disparities in Criminal Case Outcomes among Indigent Defendants in San Francisco

Girlhood Interrupted: The Erasure of Black Girls’ Childhood (Georgetown Law, July 2017)

Paying More for Being Poor (LCCR Report, May 2017)

Still: Life America’s Increasing Use of Life and Long-Term Sentences (The Sentencing Project, May 2017)

Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2017 (Prison Policy Initiative, March 14, 2017)

Race and Wrongful Convictions in the United States (National Registry of Exonerations, March 7, 2017)

Racial Disparities In Traffic Stops (Frank Baumgartner, February 14, 2017)

Task Force on Building Public Trust in the American Justice System (American Bar Association, January 25, 2017)

How Many Americans Are Unnecessarily Incarcerated? (Brennan Center for Justice, December 9, 2016)

San Francisco Justice Reinvestment Initiative: Racial & Ethnic Disparities Analysis for the Reentry Council (Burns Institute for Juvenile Justice Fairness & Equity)

Guilty by Implicit Racial Bias: The Guilty/Not Guilty Implicit Association Test (Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law)

A Process Evaluation and Demographic Analysis of Jury Pool Formation in North Carolina’s Judicial District 15B (UNC School of Government, September 27, 2016)

Confronting Criminal Justice Debt (Harvard Law School Criminal Justice Policy Program, September 2016)

Dealing with Marijuana Misdemeanors in Durham: Racial Disparities Undercut the City’s Progress (Self-Help, November 2015)

Investigation of the Baltimore City Police Department (U.S. Department of Justice, August 10, 2016)

Thin Blue Lies: How Pretextual Stops Undermine Police Legitimacy (Case Western Reserve Law Review, 2016)

The Color of Justice: Racial and Ethnic Disparity in State Prisons (The Sentencing Project)

The Science of Justice: City Report (Center for Policing Equity)

The Science of Justice: Race, Arrests, and Police Use of Force (Center for Policing Equity)

Office of General Counsel Guidance on Application of Fair Housing Act Standards to the Useof Criminal Records by Providers of Housing and Real Estate-Related Transactions (April 4, 2016, US Department of Housing & Urban Development)

Ferguson Consent Decree (US District Court, Eastern District of Missouri, January 26, 2016)

Driving While Black (, July 2015)

Federal Sentencing Disparity: 2005-2012 (Bureau of Justice Statistics, October 22, 2015)

Who Pays? The True Cost of Incarceration on Families (Ella Baker Center for Human Rights)

Disproportionate Impact of K-12 School Suspension and Expulsion on Black Students in Southern States (Center for the Study of Race and Equity in Education, University of Pennsylvania)

North Carolina House Bill 879: An Unlikely Smooth Ride to Reform (National Association of Public Defenders, August 10, 2015)

Final Report of The President's Task Force on 21st Century Policing (May 2015)

Picking Up the Pieces: A Minneapolis Case Study (ACLU)

Policing Reform Recommendations (Orange County Bias Free Policing Coalition, May 2015)

A Prosecutor's Guide for Advancing Racial Equity (VERA Institute of Justice, November 2014)

Investigation of the Ferguson Police Department (US DOJ Civil Rights Division, March 4, 2015)

Lynching in America: Confronting the Legacy of Racial Terror (Equal Justice Initiative, 2015)

What Caused the Crime Decline? (Brennan Center for Justice)

Black Lives Matter: Eliminating Racial Inequity in the Criminal Justice System (The Sentencing Project, February 2015)

Where Do We Go From Here? Mass Incarceration and the Struggle for Civil Rights (Economic Policy Institute, January 16, 2015)

The Role of Race in Washington State Capital Sentencing, 1981-2012 (Katherine Beckett and Heather Evans, University of Washington. January 27, 2014)

Students of the Mass Incarceration Nation (Katayoon Majd, Howard Law Review. November 8, 2011)
Born Suspect: Stop-and-Frisk Abuses and the Continued Fight to End Racial Profiling in America (NAACP, September 2014)
Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Traffic Stops in North Carolina, 2000-2011: Examining the Evidence (NC Association of Chiefs of Police) 

Race and Punishment: Racial Perceptions of Crime and Support for Punitive Policies
(The Sentencing Project)

ABA National Task Force on Stand Your Ground Laws
Preliminary Report & Recommendations (, August 8, 2014)

War Comes Home. The Excessive Militarization of American Policing (ACLU, June 2014)

Excerpt from Burning Down the House: The End of Juvenile Prison, by Nell Bernstein
(The National Press, July 26, 2014)

Prosecution & Racial Justice in New York County - Technical Report (July 2014)

Collateral Damage: America's Failure to Forgive or Forget in the War on Crime
A Roadmap to Restore Rights & Status After Arrest or Conviction (NACDL, 2014)

Road Work Ahead. Data Collection: A Tool to Ameliorate Racially Biased Policing (ACLU of NC, May 2014)

The School-to-Prison Pipeline - Implications for North Carolina Schools and Students
(For the Commission on Racial & Ethnic Disparities in the Criminal Justice System, June 2013)
High Suspension & Expulsion Rates Driven by Ineffective School Policies & Practices, Not  "Bad Kids" (Indiana University, March 13, 2014)

First, Do No Harm: On Addressing the Problem of Implicit Bias in Juror Decision Making  (Jennifer K. Elek & Paula Hannaford-Agor)

Trading Democracy for Justice: Criminal Convictions & the Decline of Neighborhood Political Participation (American Bar Foundation, Winter 2014)

Symposium – Criminal Justice in the 21st Century: Eliminating Racial & Ethnic Disparity in the Criminal Justice System (NY University Journal of Legislation & Public Policy, Fall 2013)

NACDL Eliminating Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Criminal Justice System 2012 Conference:  Conference Report (July 2013) and Conference Webcasts (December 2013)

Implicitly Unjust: How Defenders Can Affect Systemic Racist Assumptions 
December 2013, Jonathan A. Rapping (Posted with permission from the Author)

War on Marijuana in Black and White (ACLU June 2013 Report)

Implicit Racial Bias in Public Defender Triage (Yale Law Journal April 2013)

Racial Disparities and the Juvenile Justice System: A Legacy of Trauma  (Posted with permission from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network from

Making Race Salient: Trayvon Martin and Implicit Bias in a Not Yet Post-Racial Society
(NC Law Review)
Racial Profiling in North Carolina: Racial Disparities in Traffic Stops, 2000 to 2011
(NCAJ June 2012 Trial Briefs)
Collateral Damage: How Mass Incarceration Increases Poverty and Crime in North Carolina's Poorest African American Communities (NCAJ August 2011 Trial Briefs)

Duties of Public Defenders Regarding Racial Disparities in the NC Criminal Justice System
(May 2011, James E. Williams, Jr.)

Racial Disparities in the Criminal Justice System
(True Bill February 2011, James E. Williams, Jr.)

Addressing Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC) in Juvenile Delinquency Court
(Office of the Juvenile Defender August 2011 Report)

Racial and Ethnic Disparity in the Criminal Justice System
(ABA Justice Kennedy Commission Report to the House of Delegates, August 2004)